Subtree Layer


The Carolina Buckthorn most striking characteristic is its shiny, dark leaves. It grows best in moist, well-drained soil, but can tolerate drought and dry soil. When fully matured, the Carolina Buckthorn can grow up to 12-15 feet high. It is native to eastern central and southeastern United States to Northeastern Mexico, in its native habitat such as bottomlands, ravines, stream bottoms and banks, and woods.

Elderberry, American Elder: 

The Elderberry, or American Elder, is a deciduous tree. It’s native to eastern North America. When fully grown, it can reach a height of 10 to 15 feet, and a spread of about 5 to 12 feet. The Elderberry’s native habitat includes bogs, ditches, alluvial forests, and old fields. This tree is known for its large clusters of yellowish-white, star-shaped flowers in the summer. Purplish-black berries follow these flowers in the late summer and fall.

Hog Plum, Flatwoods Plum:

The Hog Plum can reach heights of 12-36 feet, and can have a spread of up to 15 feet. Its native habitats include prairies, plains, meadows, pastures, and savannas. Interestingly, the plums from this plant are used to make jam and jellies. The Hog Plum is a deciduous tree, and is also known as the Flatwoods Plum. Its native distribution is North Carolina south to central Florida, west to Southern Arkansas, and east to Texas.

Pygmy Fringe Tree: 

The Pygmy Fringe Tree is a deciduous tree with low flammability. It grows up to 10-12 feet tall, and produces fragrant white flowers that bloom in late spring, as well as its bluish-black fruit. The Pygmy Fringe Tree’s native range is Eastern and Central United States. Mainly, Native Americans used this plant for disinfectant and medical uses.

Red Anise:

The Red Anise is a flowering tree that produces showy maroon flowers, but unfortunately has a fish-like odor. However, when they are ripe, seeds explode out of the star-shaped fruit. When mature, the Red Anise reaches heights of 15-20 feet. It’s an evergreen tree, and is native to wet soils in low hammocks, marshy areas, and wooded ravines from northern Florida and Georgia along the coastal plain to Louisiana.

Southern Wax Myrtle: 

The Southern Wax Myrtle is an evergreen tree that can reach heights of 15-25 feet, and have a spread of 20-25 feet. This tree is highly salt and wind tolerant, and provides excellent winter and extreme weather cover. The Southern Wax Myrtle is very strong, growing naturally in sand dunes, wetlands, rivers and streams, hillsides, and fields, and can weather through long droughts, coastal storms, and high tropical temperatures. Interestingly, it was used by Native Americans to make medicine. This tree produces bluish-white fruits that grow in clusters and last through the winter. These fruits have been used for many years to make candles and soaps. 

Spanish Stopper:

The Spanish Stopper is native to coastal hardwood hammocks and coastal thickets in Central and South Florida. It’s an evergreen tree, and produces white flowers that are slightly fragrant. The Spanish Stopper also produces reddish orange fruits that turn brown or black when ripe. When fully mature, this tree can reach a height of 12-20 feet. The Spanish Stopper is most noted for its hurricane wind resistance. -trunk to 30 cm in diameter.

White Stopper: 

The White Stopper gets its name from the white color on the bark of its trunk. As a flowering tree, its white or cream-colored flowers bloom year-round, and produce red fruit that turn purplish-black when ripe. When fully grown, the White Stopper can have a height of 10 to 20 feet, with a spread of 8 to 15 feet. It’s native to South Florida along the Gulf Coast, growing in habitats such as coastal hammocks and sandy areas, but it rarely grows inland.  – trunk to 30 cm in diameter. 

Swamp Dogwood: 

The Swamp Dogwood is a deciduous tree that can grow up to a height of 10-30 feet. It is otherwise known as the Stiff Dogwood. This tree is found in swamps and low moist woodlands throughout the southeastern United States and west to Missouri. It produces small white flowers as well as bright, blue fruits.